In Denial: We Pursue Endless Growth At Our Peril

As we’ve been discussing of late here at, humans desperately need a new story to live by. The old one is increasingly dysfunctional and rather obviously headed for either a quite dismal or possibly disastrous future. One of the chief impediments to recognizing the dysfunction of the old story and adopting a new one is the most powerful of all human emotional states: Denial.

I used to think that Desire was the most powerful human emotion because people are prone to risking everything in their lives – careers, marriages, relationships with their family and close friends - pursuing lust or accumulating 10,000 times more money and possessions than they need in their desire for “more.”

Perhaps it was my own blind spot(s) that prevented me from really appreciating just how powerful human denial really is. But here we are, 40 years after the Club of Rome and 7 years after the Great Financial Accident of 2008, collectively pretending that neither was a sign warning of the dangers we face – as a global society – if we continue our unsustainable policies and practices that assume perpetual growth.

Economic Denial

In the realm of economics, the level of collective denial gripping the earth’s power centers is extraordinary. Perhaps that should be of little surprise, as we’re now at the height of the largest set of nested financial bubbles ever blown in world history.

The bigger the bubble(s) the bigger the levels of denial required to sustain their expansion. These bubbles are doozies, and that explains the massive and ongoing efforts to prevent any sort of reality from creeping into the national and global dialog.

To understand this pattern of avoidance of unpleasant realities, consider the behavior of cities – even entire nations – which cannot bring themselves to talk openly about their state of insolvency, let alone do something about it.

Chicago has amassed debt and underfunded liabilities totaling $63 billion, or more than $61,000 per household. Illinois already ‘enjoys’ the second highest property tax rate in the nation at 2.28 percent of a property’s value, which means the average property tax bill for the median home is $5,200 per year. On top of that, Illinois’ income tax is a flat 5% and brings in a total of $18 billion from 4.7 million households, or $3,800 per household. Combined, that’s $9,000 in taxes per year per average household (which earns $38,625).

Here’s the brutal math: the current city deficit is 675% of current tax receipts. How exactly does Chicago plan to scrape another $61,000 out of each household on top of the existing tax bills?

It doesn’t. It has no plan. The plan is to simply remain in denial and ignore everything until it all breaks down. Which it has indeed started to do, with the ever-late, after-the-horse-has-already-left-the-barn downgrade of the city’s debt to junk status by Moodys.

Or perhaps we could note that of the six mayoral candidates seeking election to run the city of Philadelphia, not one has even talked about its massive $5.7 billion pension shortfall during the campaign, even as they promise expanded pre-kindergarten programs and tax cuts. Not one. Do you think that any of them has an actual plan to address that budget gap’s dream-crushing burden?

They don’t. The only ‘plan’ they have is to remain in denial and ignore everything until it all breaks down. And then, we might guess, blame the prior administrations.

Japan has the most debt per person of any nation in the world, standing at nearly $100,000 per resident. And that burden is growing every year. Yet in 2005, Japan passed an important milestone as its population peaked at 128 million. It’s been declining ever since. Japan lost 244,000 net residents in 2013, and is now trundling on a downwards population trajectory for the next 50-60 years. And at the same time, it is growing older – Japan has the second highest median age in the world.

Clearly that demographic profile is a recipe for economic shrinkage, not growth. And yet the Japanese central bankers and politicians are hell-bent on creating rapid economic growth via the twin cattle prods of reckless money printing and excessive government borrowing. How is it that the leaders of Japan have convinced themselves that rapid economic growth is what they need (instead of the more rational and opposite case of managed economic shrinkage)? What’s their plan, exactly?

They have no plan. The plan is to simply remain in denial and ignore everything until it all breaks down.

The same story is written everywhere, with every example sharing the same common element of presumed perpetual growth. Everybody plans on growing steadily, forever into the future, amen.

The United States is no different. It’s own entitlement shortfalls, pegged at anywhere from $60 trillion to $220 trillion, are themselves still derived with the assumption of future growth.

Here’s the ‘plan’ for the US according to the CBO:

Yes, the ‘plan’ is for the US to someday have an economy equal to the entire current world GDP as it stands here in 2015. Does that make any sense to anybody at all? Who thinks that’s a realistic plan?

By 2080 when this is supposed to take place, the entire world will be past the peak of all known sources of energy. And Phosphate. And soil. And fresh water. And oceanic fish biomass. And who knows what else. And yet the CBO blithely assumes that US, all on its own, will be producing and consuming 100% of what the entire world does today.

The above chart helps us visualize one of the largest and most potentially destructive forms of denial on display. Our collective denial of limits. It’s also good to remember that all of the entitlement shortfalls are ‘only’ as bad as they because of the assumption of uninterrupted US economic growth. Should economic growth fall short of that spectacular run that will take the US to a worldly level of consumption and production, then the entitlement programs will prove to be just that much more underfunded.

Ecological Denial

Sadly, it's on the natural fronts that human denial seems to be at its most extreme. Hollywood visions and SciFi fantasies aside (where humans live in sealed capsules and subsist entirely on man-made foods), humans are 100% utterly dependent on the natural world for their survival. Food, water, oxygen, and predictable temperatures and rainfall patterns provide the basics of life.

To focus on just one part, which I also detail in The Crash Course book, humans are rapidly degrading our soils upon which everything depends.

Not only are we obviously losing topsoil to erosion and generally turning soil into lifeless dirt by stripping out its biological diversity, we are mining these soils for their micro and macro nutrients yet have no coordinated plan for replacing them.

Obviously if you take minerals like calcium and magnesium out of the soils in the form of harvested grains and vegetables, they’ll need to be replaced. Right now they are mainly flushed out to sea, never to be economically recovered.

The situation is pretty grim as I recently outlined in a recent report on our nation’s poor soil management practices. Here’s some more context for that view:

Britain has only 100 harvests left in its farm soil as scientists warn of growing 'agricultural crisis'

Oct 20, 2014

Intense over-farming means there are only 100 harvests left in the soil of the UK’s countryside, a study has found.

With a growing population and the declining standard of British farmland, scientists warned that we are on course for an “agricultural crisis” unless dramatic action is taken.

Despite the traditional perception that there is a green and pleasant land outside the grey, barren landscape of our cities, researchers from the University of Sheffield found that on average urban plots of soil were richer in nutrients than many farms.

“With a growing population to feed, and the nutrients in our soil in sharp decline, we may soon see an agricultural crisis,” Professor Dunnett said.

“Meanwhile we are also seeing a sharp decrease in bio-diversity in the UK which has a disastrous knock-on effect on our wildlife Lack of pollinators means reduction in food.


Scientists in the UK are being matched by scientists elsewhere, noting that humanity’s general approach towards soils and farming are obviously destructive and exceptionally unsustainable. It should be setting off alarm bells that urban plots are found to be more nutrient-dense than many farms.

The loss of biodiversity is something that we just cannot yet fully comprehend, as all of nature is an enormously intertwined set of complex relationships. Of course, our failure to understand and appreciate the true role(s) of biodiversity will not protect us from the consequences of destroying it.

Any culture that ruins its soils cannot claim any sort of sophistication at all. That just flunks the basic IQ test. It’s not unlike watching a brilliant piano prodigy starve to death because he can’t manage the details of making his own meals despite a well-stocked kitchen. No matter how beautifully he can play, he simply lacks the necessary skills to sustain himself.

Human security at risk as depletion of soil accelerates, scientists warn

May 7, 2015

Steadily and alarmingly, humans have been depleting Earth’s soil resources faster than the nutrients can be replenished. If this trajectory does not change, soil erosion, combined with the effects of climate change, will present a huge risk to global food security over the next century, warns a review paper authored by some of the top soil scientists in the country.
The paper singles out farming, which accelerates erosion and nutrient removal, as the primary game changer in soil health.

“Ever since humans developed agriculture, we’ve been transforming the planet and throwing the soil’s nutrient cycle out of balance,” said the paper’s lead author, Ronald Amundson, a professor of environmental science, policy and management at the University of California, Berkeley. “Because the changes happen slowly, often taking two to three generations to be noticed, people are not cognizant of the geological transformation taking place.”


Notice the shifting baselines phenomenon happening here. Because the changes have taken place over three generations, our culture is incapable of recognizing the threat, let alone properly responding to it.

Instead of a bucolic pastime, farming has become just another mirror reflecting our destructive ways. Rather than carefully working within natural cycles, the average farming practice seeks to dominate and override nature.

Just spray and you’re done! Easy-peasy. Of course, this has the chance of knocking out your birds and your bees as well as the butterflies and who knows what other essential and beneficial insects as I recently laid out in the report: Suicide By Pesticide.

Pesticides kill the bugs we don’t want and many more besides. Herbicides knock out weeds, but also lots of other life-forms we do need and want kept alive. Fungicides knock out bad funguses and good ones alike.

This lazy approach to farming, although chemically sophisticated, lacks any real connection to the cycles of nature the most obvious one being the strip-mining of the macro and micro nutrients.

There was a reason that the herbivores roamed over the same grounds for hundreds of thousands and even millions of years. That worked to keep everything in balance and led to the creation of the thickest and healthiest soils imaginable when the American West was first plowed not all that long ago (by historical standards).

Horribly bleak study sees ‘empty landscape’ as large herbivores vanish at startling rate

May 4, 2015

They never ateanybody — but now, some of planet Earth’s innocentvegetarians face end times.Large herbivores — elephants, hippos, rhinos and gorillas among them — are vanishing from the globe at a startling rate, with some 60 percent threatened with extinction, a team of scientists reports.

The situation is so dire, according toa new study, that it threatens an “empty landscape” in some ecosystems “across much of the planet Earth.”

The authors were clear: This is a big problem — and it’s a problem with us, not them.

This slaughterand its consequences are not modest, the article said. In fact, the rate of decline is such that “ever-larger swaths of the world will soon lack many of the vital ecological services these animals provide, resulting in enormous ecological and social costs.”

Herbivores, it turns out, don’t just idle about munching on various green things. They play a vital role as “ecosystem engineers,” the paper said — expanding grasslands for plant species, dispersing seeds in manure, and, in the ultimate sacrifice, providing food for predators.


It’s the last paragraph that’s essential to understand.

Nature is so subtle and complex, that we have only recently learned that wolves shape rivers. Or perhaps the Native Americans knew that and it is our ‘modern’ culture that is only re-figuring all this out. I was confused by the thought of wolves shaping rivers the first time I heard it too, but it’s all laid out in this handy 4 minute video:

The loss of large herbivores will re-shape the landscape in ways that we do not yet understand and therefore cannot appreciate. But they are certainly ‘ecosystem engineers’ and the loss of those services, to put it in transactional terms that economists might relate to, will lead to a whole host of as-yet-undefined changes some of which we will regret.

We're Not At The Tipping Point; We've Already Passed It

The roles of eating, digesting and spreading seeds and manure seem like things we can make do without, here at the apex of the petroleum age, but in a few short decades we will understand just how much energy was necessary and how much value was created by the actions of these herbivores.

In Part 2: Life Beyond The Tipping Point we look at the looming net energy crisis is mathematically certain to place increasing limits on the modern way of life, in our lifetime – likely much sooner than we want or are prepared for. In sum, despite the intent of world leaders to blindly deny the economic, ecological and energetic cliffs we are hurdling towards, society has already long past the point where painful ramifications can be avoided. At this stage, destiny will be determined at the individual level, depending on what steps each of takes now, before those ramifications arrive in force.

Click here to read Part 2 of this report(free executive summary, enrollment required for full access)

This is a companion discussion topic for the original entry at

It's  depressing to see how stupidly we are managing our affairs.  When this stupidity is  constrained to the realms of economics and petroleum it seems like the collapse will "fix it".  But these ecological catastrophes will take centuries to fix.
We don't own these resources - we were tasked with managing them with care.  We  were called to be stewards of the resources of this planet.  And just like all bad managers we are going to be fired. 

"The Lord God took the man and put him in the Garden of Eden to work it and take care of it."



We are not stewards! We are part of the eco-system and a massively skewed part of it as I write this comment. Stewardship is a religious concept and it is that type of thinking that has got us into this situation and threatens to make it impossible to get out. 

This planet that we live on, almost certainly the only habitat in the universe ,that we have any hope of ever reaching or occupying, is badly overpopulated. We can argue about consumption and numbers and waste until the cow get slaughtered, but the people who live now are doing too much damage as it is, what happens when the rest of the world (the other 6/7ths who don't have a first world lifestyle) gets what we've got? (Well, nothing, because it's never going to happen, not enough resources, mi'lord! ). We need action now on population, but it's never going to happen, because no politician has the spine and would never get voted in on that platform. 


So, what does this mean? Nothing will happen, as Chris said, there will be no action, because it's too difficult and democracy will never allow it. Turkeys do not vote for Christmas! Happy extinction everyone! The following article says it all really! Just take a look at the comments from the Indians in there, basically,' You had it and we want it even if it kills everyone!' seriously…

Harry wrote:

We are not stewards! We are part of the eco-system and a massively skewed part of it as I write this comment. Stewardship is a religious concept and it is that type of thinking that has got us into this situation and threatens to make it impossible to get out. 
"We are not stewards" is every bit a religious/faith belief as is "We are stewards."  Harry, I dare say there has been very, very little thinking among the masses of humanity throughout history that:
  1. We are not the ultimate authority or power on the Earth or in the universe.

  2. There is such an ultimate authority/power who created the universe.

  3. That Power put us here as part of the Earth's ecosystem with specific instructions to prosper from the Earth's bounty (just like the rest of the Earth's organisms do), but also to take care of the Earth because we ultimately have to answer to that Power for how we have treated and mistreated each other and this Earth.

I believe it is to the extent that humanity has denied one or more of those three unproven beliefs above "that has got us into this situation and threatens to make it impossible to get out," as you said. 


those who deny that there is an ultimate Power but still see that we have to take care of the Earth for humanity's own sake

are the allies of

those who believe there is an ultimate Power to whom we must ultimately answer for how we have treated the Garden with which we were entrusted.

I embrace you Harry as my ally on this Earth, even though you don't share my faith perspective.  I say we can work together wisely, within the natural limits and cycles of this Earth, to both prosper and hand off a healthier Earth to the next generation.

Will you join me in cooperation Harry, or have you made me and others like me your sworn enemies?


When it becomes evident that we are at the limits to growth, governments will be forced to reduce debts and liabilities.  There many ways that this can be done. Here are just a few; (see if you can see what they all have in common).  Debt jubilee (savers take the hit), currency revaluation (savers take the hit), debt free money creation (savers take the hit), negative interest rates (savers take the hit).  i.e. INFLATION.     Debts, liabilities and savings get diminished in equal measure.  Whatever way it is done, it will be deeply unpopular amongst savers and this is why politicians don't want to talk about it.
And by the way, before anyone attacks me, I will be affected just as badly as any other saver. If you are young and have been forced to take on too much debt to get educated or get a roof over your head then this will be a good thing.  There is no other way out.  The fact remains that savings are only borrowed money in our monetary system after all and this has evolved to expand and contract in line with underlaying GDP.

At the end of the day, we, the baby boomer gereration, have done very well out of it at the expense of the planet and future generations.

ps. I love your "we are at the apex of the petroleum age" phrase. 

If we are not already, then we must become stewards of the earth's ecosystem.  We are the only beings on this rock who have the conscious ability to manipulate the ecosystem.  We've done a pretty bad job so far.  What we have done is more akin to pillaging than stewardship.  Along the way, of course, we have created a way of life in the developed world that is the envy of the rest of the world.  What most do not yet understand is that the status quo is not sustainable.  The so-called third world must come to terms with the reality that they cannot live like us.  It may not be fair, but as we have repeatedly been told, life ain't fair.
The developed world must come to terms with the reality that we cannot continue to live like this.  We must sacrifice…a lot.  Pretending that we can continue our lifestyle on renewable energy is a fantasy.  We have to start downscaling and soon if we are to salvage a survivable society using much less energy.

I'm taking a permaculture course in which we are told that developing our own landscape should be 2/3 work and 1/3 sitting around looking at the landscape, understanding how it currently functions and figuring out how we can transform it into a productive self sustaining resource that will support not only our family but produce a surplus for the community as well.  And then figure out how we can bring the rest of the community on board with the same goal.  It is an intimidating task and one I am far from certain can be pulled off.  But, it must be done everywhere if the planet and its inhabitants are to survive.


I could give you more thumbs up

'If we are not already, then we must become stewards of the earth's ecosystem.  We are the only beings on this rock who have the conscious ability to manipulate the ecosystem.  We've done a pretty bad job so far. '
I couldn't agree more with this, but not from a religious perspective. We do need to become 'Stewards', but no higher power made us this way and if there was one, just imagine how annoyed he'd be with us for the dreadful mess we've made!
thc0655, yes,I'll work with anyone who doesn't expect me to share their nonsense, and who has the best interests of our species in mind. 'the best interests' means an end to reckless breeding, in opposition to 'go forth and multiply'…

Religious hogwash.  As the late Catton would say;  we are no different from yeast in a vat of sugar.  The population increases uncontrollably until all the sugar is used up and then it crashes.  Our sugar is fossil energy.  In a couple of hundred years time a few Homo Sapiens (numbered in millions rather than billions) may still be around.  In a couple of thousand years time the climate will have stabilised, radio activity from our abandoned nuclear power stations will be down to background levels and other species of animals will have recovered their numbers.  No doubt, other religions will have been invented by then and fought over. Same old same old.

[quote=climber99]Religious hogwash.  As the late Catton would say;  we are no different from yeast in a vat of sugar.  The population increases uncontrollably until all the sugar is used up and then it crashes.  Our sugar is fossil energy.  In a couple of hundred years time a few Homo Sapiens (numbered in millions rather than billions) may still be around.  In a couple of thousand years time the climate will have stabilised, radio activity from our abandoned nuclear power stations will be down to background levels and other species of animals will have recovered their numbers.  No doubt, other religions will have been invented by then and fought over. Same old same old.
Religon and the concept of a god is human made fiction, which thankfully we are (albeit slowly) evolving beyond.
Ever took a second to stop and think that given there are many religions that claim they know the answer, they can’t all be correct, please consider just for a second that all religions are false.
We are all simply organic matter. Everything that has, does and will ever exist is purely the result of a moment of randomness exploding into infinite nothingness 13.7 billion years ago.
Its incredible (but also inevitable) that anything at all exists, even more so that we exist and are able to witness it.
The concept of god is purely that, it was just a less evolved mans concept/fairytale that’s been handed down for probably less than 500 generations of humanity.

I'm taking a moment away from working on the new book Chris and I are writing to request folks remember this site's Discussion Guidelines & Rules, specifically our requirement that we stick to empirical data and leave our own personal belief systems at the door (i.e., let's keep discussion of religion/politics/etc out of the comments)
Let's let the moderators have a restful weekend.



The amazing thing which stood out to me in reading the comments is that we all have a common desire to do what is right for future generations, regardless of religious/non perspective. But the skeptic in me reads Doug's comment "We are the only beings on this rock who have the conscious ability to manipulate the ecosystem. " and had to laugh a little.  I question this statement. We, on an individual level, sure, we can do this. But on a collective level, all the various special-interests come out and gum up the decision making apparatus to the point where all we can do is keep on walking the same path.  Collectively, I don't have much hope.
I read somewhere that when scientists model human decision making on a grand scale, they count us as incapable of foresight-based decision making. As only capable of changing as a result of crisis. I think that's true, leaving us all just as impotent as those over-breeding deer who couldn't help starve themselves to a population collapse. As a result, I fear our biggest bubble is not a currency bubble, but a population bubble. 

Lastly, my $0.02 on continued growth. I believe that CBO projection on economic growth is nearly exactly correct. For one reason - it is stated in fiat currency. The unlimited printing presses of the world can growth the economy to any extent required… but the Primary and Secondary forms of wealth will hit real limits of growth. That's inflation.

Chris' advice through the Crash Course led me to diversify into Primary and secondary forms of wealth, and I can happily state that, as of 2 months ago, I managed to buy 70 acres of forest land beside a lake here in the Pacific NorthWest, where I plan to put a house.  Now if things go really well, fingers crossed, I'm hoping that inflationary trend will wipe out my dollar-denominated debt… :wink:

Best wishes to everyone, and if there are PP'ers looking to gain experience in building a timber-frame house or setup a permaculture food-forest, reach out to me. I'm very much in need of volunteer's and/or people who know more about construction than I


I’m not here to troll or be argumentative.
I accept that my views above are difficult for many to accept.
As Chris says let’s focus on what we agree on, he is less interested in why our reasons differ for moving to action as they can be a distraction.
Peace and Prosperity to you all that care.

"we all have a common desire to do what is right for future generations".  Not sure about this.  As my wife tells me, as I bore her yet again about my predictions about the future, most people don't think about it at all. 
Page 19, Limits to Growth, Figure 1 Human Perspectives illustrates it perfectly.  Most people think in terms of "family" and "next week".  Very, very few think in terms of "world" and "children's lifetime".  This explains why such an important book as this has made exactly zero difference in the real world since it was first published in 1972,  why Catton compared us to yeast in his book Overshoot in 1980 and why sites such as this one continue to make very little impression on policy makers round the world.


It is interesting that Religion has made an appearance. It means that the message has got through to us.
There are no atheists in foxholes.  Let me make a prediction. Theism will surge back as more people face their (inevitable) existential crisis.

I am in complete denial about mine. I phantasize about clean white sheets in a friendly hospice. I have my doubts. I think I will go and have a nice cup of coffee.

Head nod to the doomers out there, most here get it.  Population is going to come down, probably way down, most probably in an uncontrolled fashion.  Assuming we don't all go the way of the dodo, Nature is gonna be out of whack for a good long while for those that remain.
Doesn't get us off the hook for trying though. If you give a s*** you have to try. So maybe ease up a bit on the doom. Most here get it. And The Thing isn't going anywhere anytime soon.

"Enjoying" another toasty warm day here in the Pacific Northwest.  With my tomato plants.

Why did the negative karma come from the non-theists? isn't it usually the christians who spread vehemence and vitriol?
I believed Sartre when he said, "for the finite to exist, the infinite must exist as a reference." is it possible for all that to be a hominids anthropomorphization of the infinite?

smile yawl, we all love MaMa.

You can tell what's true by what is angrily opposed. Thanks for the verification. 
How do we make "progress" on reducing the population?  What actions can we take?  Something like China has instituted perhaps?  That kind of final solution doesn't sound better to me. Especially since it seems like I might be part of the problematic group that needs to be reduced. I have 4 kids. Perhaps I should sterilize myself and then what?  Any ideas on implementation or can we get back to taking better care of the planet and our resources?

Stewardship - :  the conducting, supervising, or managing of something; especially  :  the careful and responsible management of something entrusted to one's care <stewardship of natural resources>


I presume I'm not the only PP reader to have noticed the sea change in the tone and tenor of PP in the last few weeks: from vague optimism to clear pessimism.
But that's OK: PP is coming to terms with the fact that the world is NOT going to change course until forced to, and that will be destructive and painful.

Nothing new here. I and many others have been glum and pessimistic about the course of the world since the dawning of the environmental movement in the 60s. I remember a report back then in Time or Newsweek of an Alaskan businessman getting stroppy about this new concept of environment: "It used to be the limitless outback but now it's the [expletive deleted] fragile tundra!" Whether he ever came to terms with it is not recorded.

All of us in PP feel a collective responsibility to take the best care of our planet that we can, so let us continue in doing just that. Our example matters and is noticed.

Aloha! What religion is worshipped anywhere other than "consuming"? Even Christopher Columbus and everything Captain Cook did was to further the religious beliefs of "consuming"! The BIGGEST empires consumed the most! That is how we measure the wealth of any Nation on Earth. That is how we measure the wealth of any individual on Earth! It is human nature. Sure there are a few Mother Theresas out there that stumble onto a meager existence and somehow promote it to the masses and get a few awards in the process, but those are the extreme rare humans … the .000000001% of the .01%!!! The rest of us are just on Earth to consume our way through our life and we don't think! Let me say it again … WE DON'T THINK!!! The economic misery index has to be off the charts lowest of the low for any group of humans to forgo their life of consumption in order to make the life of the next generation better.
I am sorry but who here would give up everything they worked for to be a George Washington or a Fidel Castro for that matter? Who wants to voluntarily give up their Lexus SUV and their mini-Mansion and hide in the Rocky Mountains fighting the US military for the next ten years? Show of hands??? Hmmmm … any? Just one? Huh? Any "Freedom Fighters" out there? Not one? Ah … okay … 

If anyone here has children then "you were not thinking" about anyone other than yourself! Having children is one of the most self consumed actions any human can take and yet somehow we are all brainwashed into believing it has some noble purpose and that we deserve huge accolades! The IRS even hands out tax credits for your reckless behavior! I think you deserve huge tax credits for NOT having kids! Anyone have kids out there? How much of the Earth's resources will it take to get your child from a baby to 80?

Here you go …

Holy … man … 3.11 million pounds!!! Unreal …

I know … maybe your child will be the one who invents a process that creates unlimited energy from one oxygen molecule! More than likely though it is this scenario that the human species is predestined to inherit in all its grandiosity …

Josh Duggar and the Catholic Church take a bow …